An artificial language
Linars is an artificial language. Linars means "Lingua ars" ("Art language", in Latin).
Legend: "big letter, small letter" = "short name, long name" (equivalent sound in word). Most sound equivalent to the words from English, but a few are from other (specified) languages.
Rules of writing and speech
Punctuation signs: " ^ - \ _ . , ' " ; : ... ( ) ".
The accent is put on the second syllable of a word, or on the one above which there is a circumflex accent ("^").
The number of syllables from a word is equal with the number of vowels it has. Each syllable ends with a vowel, except for the last syllable from a word which ca end with a consonant. There are no diphthongs or triphthongs, though a horizontal bar above a vowel indicates that it forms a diphthong or triphthong with the next vowels.
All words are read as they are written, similar to the Latin style.
The only words with one letter are the short names of the vowels. The only words with 2 letters are the short names of the consonants. The only words with 3 letters are the words from the basic grammar. Except the predefined words, all words must have at least 4 letters.
Any new words can be created, but it's preferable for each word to have a unique meaning.
Neologisms must be written as they sound in their original language.
All names are written and read as in their source language, but adapted as much as possible to the Linars alphabet.
All writing can be done with small letters. Big letters can be used when it is desired to make something visible, like the beginning of sentences or the beginning of names.
The separation of a word on two different consecutive lines of text is done with a backslash ("\") at the end of the first line (where the first part of the word is). Words can be split between any letters.
Composite words are a sequence of words separated with a line ("-") or underscore ("_").
Quotes are written between quote marks (" "some text" "). Imbricated quotes are written between apostrophes (" 'some text' ").
Words whose intended meaning is different than the usual meaning of the words are written between quote marks (" "" ").
Each sentence ends with a dot (".").
Acronyms are written with big letters. For emphasis, they can also end with an apostrophe (" ' ").
The separator of phrases in a sentence is the comma (",").
Legend: "digit" = "name".
A spoken (or written with words, not numbers) numerical group has 3 digits. If a number has a single digit, a zero must be used in its front.
Numerical groups (written with digits) are separated with apostrophes (" ' "). It's not mandatory.
When a digit is repeated in a numerical group, repeaters must be used (instead of repeating the word of the digit).
Multiplicative = "o" + numeric group. This represents 10 ^ (+ numeric group).
Fractional = "i" + numeric group. This represents 10 ^ (- numeric group).
The numeric group can be only from 0 to 999. There is no need to fill the group with zeros.
Brackets are used to indicate that the text between them can miss.
Form = [plus / minus][((numeric group)(multiplicative numeric order))*["ota" / "ita"]] [((numeric group)(multiplicative numeric order))*] .
The decimal separator (between the integer and fractional parts) is the dot ("."). Numeric writing: [sign] [integer part] ["." fractional part].
The meaning of cardinal numeral changes when a derivative preposition is used in its front.
A verbal preposition is put in front of a verb to change its meaning.
Form = voice + mood + time / tense.
The implicit verbal preposition (that is, if nothing is specified) is "tan".
If a verbal preposition is put in front of a noun, it transforms the noun into a verb with the meaning "to do / create that what the noun is".
The time of the main verb of a sentence must be relative to the time of the writing / speech, independent from the other sentences. The time of the secondary verbs of a sentence must be relative to the time of the main verb.
If nothing else is specified, then it is considered that the action of a verb has begun before the time specified by the verb and has not ended at the time specified by the verb.
The times of the verbs from the following cases are specified as they must be in Linars (not as they are in English).
In the following cases the time of the first verb is past:
In the following cases the time of the first verb is future:
The personal pronoun can replace the noun or emphasize the noun which follows after it. If the noun is not preceded by a noun, it is considered that the noun is the general one ("can" = somebody, anybody).
Form = number + person + gender.
I = "ron". You = "rin". He / She / It = "ren". We = "von". You = "vin". They = "ven".
Legend: Linars form = English form
Personal pronoun + reflexive voice verb = reflexive pronoun + verb.
Possession preposition + personal pronoun = possessive pronoun.
These prepositions modify the meaning of the verb / noun / adjective which follows after it.
Form = "z" + sign + type.
The implicit aspect (= if no aspect is specified) is "zan".
If in a phrase two words words are logically connected then the aspect of the second word is relative to the aspect of the first word. This means, for example, that two consecutive negations annihilate each other. The number of negations in a sentence must be minimum.
The short answer (= "yes" or "no") to a question is relative to the main verb of the question. The long answer (= the complete explanation of the reality) to a question is relative to the reality; if the answer is not relative to the reality then it must be specified what it is relative to.
For example, to the question "Is it correct (/ not wrong)...?":
To the question "Is it wrong (/ not correct)...?":
Comparison prepositions change the meaning (either the quantity or quality) of the adjective which follows.
Amplification toward "most":
Amplification toward "least":